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The Skeletal System

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Basics on the topic The Skeletal System

Have you seen a skeleton before? All vertebrates, or animals with a spine, have a skeleton, for example dinosaurs, dogs, snakes, humans and many more! In this video we will look at "The Human Skeletal System".

Transcript The Skeletal System

Hello! There's no need to be scared, haven't you ever seen a skeleton before? All vertebrates, or animals with a spine, have a skeleton, for example, dinosaurs, dogs, snakes and many more! In this video, we will look at the human skeletal system. Our skeleton consists of two hundred and six bones. Let's look at a few of our bones. This bone here is an upper arm bone. Here is a finger bone and this is a thigh bone. All our bones together form our skeleton. Where two bones meet is called a joint. A joint is a connection that holds together bones while providing support and allowing movement where it is needed. This is our spine. Our spine is made up of twenty-four moving vertebrae, or small bones. In between each vertebra, there are facet joints, which link them together and give them the flexibility to move against each other. Let's try it! Bend over and try turning your upper body. The skeleton is very useful. We actually need it to stand upright because the skeleton supports us on the inside. Without bones our body would be quite wobbly, we call this the support function of the skeleton. In addition, our skeleton also protects us. Our skull protects our brain from getting injured. Here, we have the rib cage. It is made up of twenty-four individual ribs that surround our heart and lungs to protect them! Therefore, we can also say the skeleton has a protective function. Can you touch your ribs or skull? Go ahead, try it! Our bones also store nutrients, like calcium! Inside a bone, there is soft bone marrow. The bone marrow produces red and white blood cells along with other ingredients for our blood. So without bones, we have no blood! Bones can grow and make new bone cells! These cells can be used to heal a bone if you break it. But healing takes time! After a few weeks, the break is cured and the bone is as good as new. Let's review what you have learned today. All our bones together form our skeleton. A joint is found where two bones meet, providing support and allowing movement where it is needed. The spine is made up of twenty-four moving vertebrae that support us and help us move at the same time. The entire skeleton has a support function, which helps us stand upright. The protective function means that bones, such as the skull or the ribcage, protect sensitive organs like the lungs and heart. Bones also serve as storage for important nutrients and produce components that we need for our blood, and if we break a bone, it can even heal itself! Our skeleton is just great!

The Skeletal System exercise

Would you like to apply the knowledge you’ve learnt? You can review and practice it with the tasks for the video The Skeletal System.
  • Label the bones of the skeleton.

    Hints

    The skull is the part of the skeleton that protects the brain.

    The rib cage is the part of the skeleton that protects the organs, such as the heart and lungs.

    The spine runs down the back and is made up of 33 vertebrae (small bones).

    The femur is in the upper part of the leg.

    The hip bone is right at the top of the leg.

    Solution

    Here are the correctly labelled parts of the skeleton.

    There are many more parts to the adult skeleton, as it has 206 bones in total.

  • Vertebrates and invertebrates

    Hints

    Animals that have a backbone include: mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds and fish.

    Animals that do not have a backbone include insects, crustaceans and molluscs.

    Solution
    • Vertebrates (animals with a backbone) include: mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds and fish.
    • The vertebrates here are: cat (mammal); frog (amphibian); bird and a fish.
    • Invertebrates (animals without a backbone) include: insects, crustaceans and molluscs.
    • The invertebrates here are: butterfly (insect); spider (arachnid); octopus (mollusc) and a crab (crustacean).
  • Protective skeleton.

    Hints

    This part of the skeleton wraps around our bodies to protect our internal organs, such as the heart and lungs.

    The skull of this platypus can be seen here in pink.

    Solution

    The correct answer is the skull and the rib cage.

    The skull protects the brain.

    The rib cage protects the internal organs, such as the heart and the lungs.

  • Highlight the joints on the skeleton.

    Hints

    The joints to find in this task are in pairs. There is one on each side of the body in the same area.

    The joints allow us to the bend parts of our body. Think about which parts of your body easily bend back and forth, or left and right.

    The joints are found where two bones meet.

    Solution

    There are acutally over 300 joints in the human body. Here are some of the main joints labelled on the skeleton.

  • Animal skeletons.

    Hints

    Look at the outline of the body. Can you see a similar outline in the skeleton?

    This image shows the skeleton of a fish.

    Solution

    Here are the 4 images matched:

    • a dog
    • a child
    • a snake
    • a crocodile

  • The human skeleton.

    Hints

    This is the spine. It is naturally curved and is made up of lots of smaller bones called vertebrae.

    The human skeleton has lots of functions. Two of these are to support and protect the body.

    The adult human skeleton is made up of 206 bones and 360 joints.

    Solution

    The adult, human skeleton is made up of 206 bones in total. Our skeletons have many functions, including support - keeping our bodies upright, and protection - keeping our organs safe.

    The part of our skeleton that runs down our backs and keeps us upright is called the spine. The adult spine is made up of 24 smaller bones known as vertebrae.

    Many species in the animal world have a backbone, such as lions and lizards. These are known as vertebrates. Those without a backbone, such as jellyfish, are known as invertebrates.

    It is important that we look after our bones by eating healthy foods containing calcium. However, if we break a bone, it can usually heal itself.

    Without our bones, parts of our bodies would be unprotected. For example, the brain is protected by the skull and the heart and lungs are protected by the rib cage. Aren't our skeletons amazing!