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## Add By Making 10 – Understanding Ten Frames

The ability to use appropriate tools when performing addition is critical for developing a deep understanding of addition operations. A tens frame is one such tool.

A tens frame is a rectangle with ten equal spaces, divided into two rows of five. It is used to represent numbers less than or equal to ten. Since tens frames contain ten equal spaces, they allow children to develop numbers sense and exchange skills within the base 10 number system. The tens frame can be used when using the add by making 10, or partitioning to add, strategy.

## How to Use a Tens Frame

We use a tens frame by placing a single counter in each of the spaces to make the number. When adding, we can use tens frames to help us break up, or partition, numbers and count on. A double-digit number can be broken up into the tens and ones. The tens place will fill up the tens frame.

For example, the number seventeen can be broken up, or partitioned, into a ten and seven ones that can be shown on the tens frame

## KS1 Add By Making 10

The tens frame can, therefore, be used to add larger numbers by breaking apart, or partitioning, the smaller addend into tens and ones.

For example, if we are asked to add 38 and 15 we can do the following:

• Step 1: Create a number sentence → 38 + 15

• Step 2: Break apart, or partition, the smaller addend and place it in the tens frame. The smaller addend is 15, therefore, 15 becomes 10 and 5

• Step 3: Solve using the tens frame by adding ten and counting on. Therefore, the complete tens frame combines with 38 to give us 48. Then, we count on from there using the second tens frame to get 53.

### Tens Frames – Steps for Add By Making 10 Year 2

To use make a ten to add, we can follow these steps:

Step What to do
1. Create a number sentence.
2. Break apart, or partition, the smaller addend.
3. Solve using the tens frame by
adding to the bigger number in
tens and then counting on.

## Year 2 Add By Making 10 – Summary

Let’s repeat what we learnt about tens frames, partitioning and the strategy to make ten to add today.

Tens frames are useful tools in an addition strategy where the smaller addend can be broken apart, or partitioned, into a ten and the smaller number represented on another tens frame. The tens frame can then be used to find the sum by counting in tens and then counting on. Because tens frames provide a visual representation of numbers, they allow children to make sense of ‘tens’ and ‘ones’

For more, have a look at our add by making 10 worksheet Year 2, add by making 10 games and add by making 10 activity.

What is a tens frame?
Why are tens frames important?
What is number sense and how does it relate to tens frames?
What does make 10 to add mean?
How do you teach add by making 10? Can tens frames be used to teach addition and subtraction?
How can tens frames help with teaching larger numbers?
Can tens frames be used to teach number bonds?

"I-imani? That's you, right?" "Surprise! It's me!"

Would you like to apply the knowledge you’ve learnt? You can review and practice it with the tasks for the video Partitioning to Add.
• ### How do you partition to add?

Hints

Remember, the first thing you need to do is understand what the problem is asking, and create an equation to show that in a number sentence.

Try adding 23 + 14 on your own. What steps did you follow?

To add 23 + 14, you can break 14 into 10 and 4.

23 + 10 = 33

33 + 4 = 37

23 + 14 = 37

Solution

For Mr. Squeaks to teach Imani, he needs to show them these steps in this order:

1. Create an equation.
3. Add the numbers using tens frames.
4. Solve the equation.
• ### How could we solve this problem?

Hints

You will partition the number 23 (the smaller addend) into tens and ones.

We can partition 23 into 20 + 3. How many tens are in 20?

Solution

To use partitioning to solve 27 + 23, we could rewrite it as 27 + 10 + 10 + 3.

• We can split 23 into 20 + 3 and then further into 10 + 10 + 3.
• 27 + 10 = 37 + 10 = 47
• 47 + 3 = 50
• 27 + 23 = 50
• ### How could we use partitioning to solve these problems?

Hints

14 + 11 would be partitioned to 14 + 10 + 1.

Remember, when partitioning we break the smaller addend into tens and ones.

Example: 17 + 12 = 17 + 10 + 2

Solution

When we partition, we break the smaller number into tens and ones, like these pairs.

• ### Show the steps.

Hints

Remember, we have the equation 18 + 12. Next, we need to partition the smaller addend.

The smaller addend is 12. 12 has one ten (12) and two ones (12).

For the second step, add 18 + 10 to fill in the blank.

Solution

Mr. Squeaks can partition to find the answer! He will start by partitioning the smaller addend (12 = 10 + 2).

Next, he will add the ten to the larger addend (28 + 2).

Finally, he will add on the ones (30).

• ### How much in total?

Hints

31 + 10 = 41. Count on 7 more to find the answer.

Solution

31 + 10 + 7 = 48

First, add the 31 + 10. 31 + 10 = 41.

Next, add the seven ones. 41 + 7 = 48.

• ### What is 43 + 16?

Hints

Remember, partition the smaller addend (16) into tens and ones.

16 = 10 + 6. Add the ten to the larger number, then add the ones.

You are adding 43 + 10 + 6.

Solution

43 + 16 = 59

First, Mr. Squeaks partitioned the smaller addend into tens and ones: 16 = 10 + 6.

Then, he added the ten to the larger addend. 43 + 10 = 53.

Finally, he added the ones to get the answer: 53 + 6 = 59.