Cause and Effect Statements
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Basics on the topic Cause and Effect Statements
Most things that happen to us every day have an effect on something else. Learn to recognise and write cause and effect statements with the help of our cause and effect video, activities and worksheets.
Cause and Effect – Definition
First, let’s define cause and effect.
Cause and effect is a concept that helps us understand relationships between events. When an event happens and has an effect on something else, we call this relationship cause and effect.
For example, look at the sentence below:
- James was riding his bike too fast. As a result, he fell down.
A cause is the reason why something happened. An effect is the result that shows what happened. In the example above, James was riding a bike too fast is a reason why he fell down, which means it is a cause. He fell down is what happened to him, which means it is an effect**.
Sometimes a sentence may show the cause followed by effect, and other times, effect followed by a cause. Cause and effect sentence structure can vary but in terms of time, the cause always happens earlier, before the effect. For example:
|cause → effect
|effect → cause
|James was riding his bike too fast and fell down.
|James fell down because he was riding his bike too fast.
Even though we have changed the order of cause and effect, when thinking about the events, we understand that the cause always happens first.
Cause and Effect – Clue Words
When analysing and explaining cause and effect statements, we need to look for the clue words. Sometimes they can be called cause and effect transition words or signal words for cause and effect. They can help identify cause and effect sentences.
Clue words for cause statements include: because, since, due to, if, when. These words indicate the cause that is shown after the effect. Clue words for effect include: so, therefore, as a result, consequently, then. They indicate the effect that is shown after the cause.
Let’s have a look at some examples of cause and effect sentences and identify cause and effect.
Due to the storm, the school picnic was cancelled.
The clue word here is due to. It is a cause clue word, which means that due to the storm is the cause, and school picnic was cancelled is the effect.
The school nurse gave them some pills for stomach ache. Consequently, they started feeling better.
The clue word in this sentence is consequently. It is an effect word, which means that they started feeling better is the effect, and the school nurse gave them some pills for stomach ache is the cause.
Cause and Effect Diagram – Example
When reading a text that describes cause and effect, students often use cause and effect graphic organisers or diagrams. They can help organise and structure our thoughts and present information in a visual way.
The most common type of cause and effect graphic organisers is a fishbone diagram. It can help identify and present multiple causes of one problem.
For example, the coal and gas industry, deforestation and increased farming are multiple causes of global warming and climate change.
Here is an example of a fishbone diagram:
Cause and Effect Statements – Summary
Let’s repeat what we have learnt about causes and effects today:
A cause is the reason why something happened. An effect is the result that shows what happened. We can identify cause and effect with the help of clue words. Clue words for cause are: because, since, due to, if, when. Clue words for effect are: so, therefore, as a result, consequently, then.
|causes – clue words
|effects – clue words
as a result
Now you know everything about cause and effect sentences. If you want more cause and effect practice, you can download cause and effect worksheets with pictures in PDF, watch our video and try cause and effect exercises with answers.
Frequently Asked Questions about Cause and Effect Statements
Transcript Cause and Effect Statements
Cause and Effect Statements. "What time is it?!" "Oh no, we woke up too late. That means we won't get any breakfast!" Throughout your daily life, something might happen that has an effect on something else. This special relationship is called cause and effect! A cause is the reason that answers: why did this happen? An effect is the result that answers: what happened? As you might notice, cause and effect are very closely related. Sometimes a statement may show the cause followed by the effect, and other times, it may show the effect followed by the cause. But, when thinking about time and sequence, the cause always happens earliest, before the effect. Clue words can help identify cause and effect. Clue words for cause statements include because, since, due to, if, and when. These words indicate the cause is being shown after the effect. Clue words for effect statements include so, therefore, as a result, consequently and then. These words indicate the effect is being shown after the cause. Let's look at the sentence; ‘Otis and Pearl woke up late, so they missed breakfast.’ Our clue word here is 'so'. This means 'Otis and Pearl woke up late' is the cause. Our clue word 'so' tells us the effect is 'they missed breakfast'. This sentence could also be written as, ‘Otis and Pearl missed breakfast because they woke up late’. This time, the clue word is ‘because’. This tells us the cause is here, at the end, and the effect is now here, at the beginning! As we follow Otis and Pearl throughout their day, let's see if we can identify more cause and effect statements! ‘They didn't leave home on time, therefore they were late to the sub stop.’ A clue word, ‘therefore’, is here. This means that the effect is 'they were late to the sub stop'. The cause here would be 'they didn't leave home on time'. Otis and Pearl continue their day! While out, 'Otis and Pearl became very hungry, since they didn't have time for breakfast'. What is the clue word in this sentence? The clue word is ‘since’. What is the cause? The cause is 'didn't have time for breakfast', as it is the reason they are hungry. What is the effect? The effect is 'became very hungry', as it is the result of missing breakfast. They leave the shop to head home, and 'Otis and Parl caught the sub on time. As a result, they make it home for their favourite show'. Can you identify the cause and effect here? The clue words ‘as a result’, shows the effect was 'they made it home in time for their favourite show'. The cause is 'Otis and Pearl caught the sub on time', and the effect was 'they made it in time for their favourite show'. While Otis and Pearl watch television, let's review. Remember, a cause is the reason that answers: why did this happen? An effect is the result that answers: what happened? Clue words for cause and effect can help identify the cause and effect! "Otis! We missed our bedtime because the show was so good!" "Pearl, it's Friday. We can sleep in tomorrow, since it's the weekend."
Cause and Effect Statements exercise
Define cause and effect.Hints
The effect is the answer to the question, "What happened?"
Another word for a cause is a reason. If I miss a train an am late, the cause is missing the train and the effect is being late.
There are 3 correct choices.Solution
- Cause is the reason that answers the question, "Why did this happen?"
- Effect is the result of another event that happened first.
- When writing about two events, sometimes the effect is mentioned first and sometimes the cause is mentioned first.
- The effect is where an event happened.
Organise clue words.Hints
The following sentence needs a clue word for cause. Try out the different choices and see if they fit! If they do, this clue word belongs to the cause category.
We are all soaking wet _________ it rained all morning on our way to school.
The following sentence needs a clue word for effect. Try out the different choices and see if they fit! If they do, this clue word belongs to the effect category.
I woke up too late, _______ I had to run to catch the bus on time!Solution
So, therefore and consequently are all clue words for effect. Try them out in the following sentence.
- I woke up too late, _______ I had to run to catch the bus on time!
- We are all soaking wet _________ it rained all morning on our way to school.
Describe the effect.Hints
If you studied hard all week, what will be the effect?
If you have a big recital coming up, what do you do to prepare for it?Solution
- I woke up late this morning so I had to run to catch the bus on time.
- I did well in my test due to studying very hard all week.
- I don't have any money left today because I spent it all at the toy shop yesterday.
- I have a big piano recital tomorrow, therefore I will practise a lot tonight.
Determine cause and effect.Hints
Use these clue words to help you determine which part of the sentence is the cause and which is the effect.
Which of the sentence parts is the cause (why it happened) and which is the effect (what happened).Solution
1) I couldn't concentrate at all this morning is the effect in the sentence, and worrying about my poorly cat is the cause.
2) I won the tennis match is the effect in the sentence, and I had practised every weekend is the cause.
3) My friend accidentally kicked my shin is the cause in the sentence, and now I have a big sore bruise is the effect.
4) I had a lot of energy when I got home from school is the cause in the sentence, and I played with my dog in the garden is the effect.
Find the cause and effect.Hints
The effect is what happened. The cause is why it happened.
Clue words that indicate the cause are:
- due to
Example sentences with cause clue words:
- I feel sick because I ate too much junk food.
- I feel very sleepy now since I played a lot outside during the day today.
I can't hand in my homework today is the effect in the sentence, and since my dog ate it last night while I was asleep is the cause.
Complete the sentences.Hints
- First, find the missing cause or effect of the sentence. Then find the clue word that fits to that the sentence makes sense.
Example sentence with cause clue word:
- I felt very sleepy because I played outside a lot during the day.
Example sentence with effect clue word:
- I stayed up very late watching T.V. last night, as a result, I was very sleepy this morning.
The cause parts of the sentences below are written in bold. The clue words are in italics.
- She got a cast because she broke her arm.
- I finished my homework early so now I can go out and play.
- I have aching legs due to running 3 miles yesterday.
- I always get to school late when I forget to set my alarm.